What Is an Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manual?

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An Operations and Maintenance (O&M) manual is the owner’s manual for your building, equipment, project, or system. It’s your go-to document when you need to sort out, fix, or find something relevant to your building, project, or equipment.

An O&M manual is a comprehensive document provided by the manufacturer or developer and related to all the necessary requirements for operating, maintaining, troubleshooting, and servicing the product or facility. 

The main purpose of an O&M manual is to provide facility operators, maintenance teams, and technical staff with the training and tools they need to reach optimal performance and extend the equipment’s lifespan. 

These manuals typically share detailed instructions on the operation of equipment, routine maintenance procedures, troubleshooting guides, parts lists, warranty information, and technical specifications.

Photo by Pandu Agus Wismoyo

Who Needs an O&M Manual?

Here’s one of the best-known examples of an O&M Manual: all new cars come with an owner’s maintenance manual. At least once in your life, you checked this manual to verify something about your car — probably about how to turn on the lights, where to find a particular switch, or when to perform the first service. 

Pretty much all industries need one, though — from telecoms and IT to public institutions. Indeed, in some cases, the law specifically requires one.

The construction industry

Mandatory by law, the construction industry works with O&M manuals: when a building has been finished or refurbished, the contractor delivers the O&M manual to the owner. Likewise, for company buildings, bridges, roads, and other infrastructure projects, O&M manuals provide detailed maintenance management system information on structural integrity, safety, and functionality. Maintenance manuals cover management systems such as HVAC, electrical, plumbing, spare parts lists, construction projects, fire safety, and health and safety systems.

Manufacturing and industry

O&M manuals will usually display the computerized maintenance management and operation of machinery, production lines, and industrial products or equipment. They provide for daily operations to run smoothly and safely, minimize downtime, and optimize productivity.

Energy sector

This includes renewable energy installations — such as wind turbines and solar panels — power plants, and electrical substations. O&M manuals show operators how to maintain energy production efficiency and stick to safety standards.

Water treatment 

O&M manuals guide the operation and maintenance of water treatment facilities, pumping stations, and distribution networks, ensuring water quality and system reliability.


O&M manuals are used in airports, ports, railway systems, and mass transit systems to guide how to maintain vehicles, infrastructure, and safety systems for operational efficiency and passenger safety.

Telecoms and IT

O&M manuals help manage and maintain data centers, network infrastructure, and telecommunications equipment for the reliability and security of services.

Healthcare facilities

Hospitals and laboratories rely on O&M manuals for the proper operation and maintenance of medical equipment, building systems, and safety protocols to maximize patient care and safety.

Environmental management systems

O&M manuals offer guidance on facility management equipment in compliance with environmental regulations and standards.

Public facilities and institutions

Schools, universities, museums, and public buildings use O&M manuals to maintain their facilities, ensuring a safe and functional environment for the public and staff.

What Makes a Good O&M Manual?

While each O&M manual is different, good ones have several things in common.

It is comprehensive

Your O&M should cover all aspects of operations, maintenance, troubleshooting, and safety procedures. This includes detailed documents for normal operation, future emergency procedures, routine and preventive maintenance tasks, and how to diagnose and correct common problems.

It is clear and accessible

The manual should be written in clear, concise language that can be easily understood by its intended audience, which often includes operators, maintenance personnel, and technical staff with varying levels of experience and expertise. Technical terms should be explained, and instructions should be straightforward to follow.

It is organized

Information should be organized in a logical, intuitive manner that makes it easy to find specific information quickly. People checking the O&M manual might need it in a time of crisis. A clear table of contents, an index, and a consistent format for each section can help users use the manual efficiently.

It uses visuals

An O&M manual includes as-built drawings, diagrams, photographs, schematics, and flowcharts when necessary to improve understanding. Visual aids should be clearly labeled and referenced in the text to support the written instructions.

It is updated

The manual should be regularly reviewed and updated to reflect changes in equipment, procedures, or regulations.

It includes safety information

Safety warnings, emergency procedures, and information on personal protective equipment (PPE) should be prominently displayed and easy to access. 

It includes technical specifications

The O&M manual includes specifications for all equipment and systems such as manufacturer details, model numbers, and part lists. This facilitates maintenance and repairs. 

It is compliant with regulations

The manual should include information on compliance with relevant industry standards, codes, and regulations. 

It should include contact information for technical support

The O&M manual provides contact information for technical support, emergency services, and suppliers to resolve issues that cannot be addressed with the manual alone.

It encourages feedback

The O&M manual encourages feedback from users on the manual’s content. This can help identify areas for improvement, so the O&M manual remains relevant and valuable.

Tips on How to Write a Good O&M Manual 

Are you considering writing an O&M manual? Here are some things to consider.

Who’s your audience?

Your O&M manual is meant to be read by the people who need it. Tailor the content to the knowledge level and needs of the end users, such as operators, maintenance personnel, and managers. Consider their background and the complexity of the information they require to perform their duties effectively.

Write all necessary information

Collect all necessary information on the system, equipment, or facility, including technical specifications, operating procedures, maintenance schedules, safety protocols, and troubleshooting guides. Consult with engineers, technicians, and other experts as needed to cover all content.

Organize content logically and intuitively

Structure the manual in a way that makes it easy to navigate. A common approach starts with general information about the system or equipment, followed by detailed operating procedures, maintenance and troubleshooting instructions, safety information, and appendices for technical data and additional resources.

Use clear language 

Write in simple, direct language for clarity. Avoid jargon and technical terms that might confuse the reader. Remember, the goal is to make the manual accessible to all intended users.

Use visual aids to support your point

Use diagrams, photographs, flowcharts, and tables to support and complement the text. Visual aids can help users better understand complex processes or components. Make sure that these visuals are high quality and clearly labeled.

Highlight safety information

Clearly mark safety warnings, emergency procedures, asset management procedures, and personal protective equipment (PPE) information. Use icons, color codes, or other visual cues to draw attention to these sections. Make these stand out. 

Provide detailed procedures

Include step-by-step instructions for operating procedures, routine maintenance, and troubleshooting common issues. Be specific about the steps involved, tools required, and safety precautions to follow. Number the steps so it’s easier to follow them. 

Include technical specifications and parts lists

Offer detailed specifications and a comprehensive list of parts, including part numbers and suppliers. This information is invaluable for maintenance and repair activities.

Review and revise

Before finalizing the manual, have it reviewed by subject matter experts and end users. Their feedback can help identify areas that may need clarification, additional certifications, or information needed. This review process maximizes the accuracy and usability of the manual.

Plan for updates

Systems and equipment evolve while terms of service procedures change. Establish a process to update the manual regularly to reflect these changes. Include a revision history or log to track updates over time.

Consider format and accessibility

Decide on the most appropriate format(s) for the manual. While printed manuals are traditional, digital versions can be more accessible and easier to update. Create an online, searchable version of the manual or use software for easy navigation and updates.

Need Help with Your O&M Manual?

If you need to prepare your O&M manual, we’re here to help. For over 20 years, we’ve been working with technical writers who can provide you with the solutions you need. 

Contact us today and let us show you why TimelyText is a trusted professional writing service and instructional design consulting partner for Fortune 500 companies worldwide!

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